Undescended testes are relatively common and most cases are diagnosed in childhood. However, sometimes they can present later on in adulthood, possibly due to fertility problems or testicular cancer, although they may also be detected during routine examinations. In some cases, if the testicle is situated within the groin, it may be removed, although undescended testes can also be brought down into the scrotum. Often the treatment will depend on whether or not there are problems with the other testicle, as well as the patient’s preference, so it’s important to discuss the options thoroughly before making a decision. Men who’ve had undescended testicles can be at greater risk of infertility further down the line, and in these instances a microdissection sperm retrieval may need to be performed.